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The amount of particulate matter (PM) collected by an average city tree can be matched by just 13 linear metres of ivy screens or living hoarding (covered with hedera helix ivy).

Dunnett, N & Kingsbury, N (2010). Planting Green Roofs and Living Walls (2nd Edn.). London, UK: Timber Press.

Installing living screens in urban streets can reduce street-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide by as much as 40% and up to 60% for particulate matter (PM).

Pugh, Thomas. MacKenzie Robert, Whyatt Duncan & Hewitt, Nicholas (2012). Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure for Improvement of Air Quality in Urban Street Canyons. Lancaster, UK. Lancaster University.

An estimated 4,267 premature deaths in London in 2008 could be attributed to long term exposure to fine 'dust' particles (PM2.5).
Miller, Brian, G. (June 2010) Report on estimation of mortality impacts of particulate air pollution. Consulting report P951-001. Institute of Occupational Medicine.

Children are at most risk from poor air quality, research suggests exposure to dust particles whilst growing-up could reduce lung capacity as much as 17%.

Royal London Hospital research in 2012.


Air pollution is the UK's second-biggest public health threat after smoking and incurs an estimated £20bn/year in related health costs.

Defra, Scottish Executive, Welsh Assembly Government and DoENI (2007) The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, Volume 1.


The City of London are committed to controlling emissions of PM10 particles from construction, demolition and street works in and around the route from Victoria Embankment through to Tower Hill to help achieve EU targets.

The City of London (March 2011). Air Quality Strategy 2011-2015. London, UK. The City of London Corporation.

It takes less than half a glass of water a day to keep one linear metre of living screen or hoarding sufficiently irrigated, even in hot weather.

Urban Greening calculations based on technical data provide for irrigation systems installed with hoarding, 2012.

Living screens can increase biodiversity in the local area by promoting nesting birds, insects and butterflies.

Brenneisen, S (2003). The benefit of biodiversity from Green Roofs – Key design Consequence. Conference Green Roofs for Healthy Cities, Chicago.

Studies have shown a significant decrease in aggression, violence, vandalism and crime in ‘greened-up’ areas.

Kuo, F.E. and Sullivan, W. (2001). Environment and Crime in the inner city: Does vegetation reduce crime? Environment and Behavior Vol. 33(3): pp.343-367.

Increasing the amount of vegetation in an urban area by just 10% could produce reductions of up to 4 degrees centigrade in urban surface temperature.

Handley, J. and Carter, J. (2006). Adaptation strategies for climate change in the urban environment. Draft final report to the National Steering Group, Centre for urban and regional ecology. University of Manchester

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